Join over 19,000 others and become a member of - it's free!

join for free

This site is written by

victoria Williams Music Theory

Victoria Williams

LmusTCL BA Mus (Hons) MISM

Learn more...

book cover notes


We have 3697 guests and no members online

Video Courses by MyMusicTheory

Please note: this website is not run by the ABRSM and is a completely independent business.

Get the MyMusicTheory Course Book
Next UK ABRSM Paper-based Theory Exams Grades 6-8:
Tue 16th November 2021 [Grades 1-5 available online on demand from Aug 2021]
Next UK Trinity Paper-based Theory Exams Grades 1-8:
Sat 6th November 2021

Browse by Music Grade: Grade 1 | Grade 2 | Grade 3 | Grade 4 | Grade 5 | Grade 6 | Grade 7 | Grade 8 | DiplomasWhat Grade am I?

grade 8 music theoryDownload this Grade 8 Music Theory Course or buy the Printed Book Version

Buy Grade 8 Theory Past Papers

Get some help!

3. Texture (Keyboard Reconstruction)

Texture in the Grade 8 Keyboard Reconstruction Question

In some places in the keyboard piece of question 2 you will find that one hand plays single notes, in other places one hand may have two, three or more notes to play simultaneously.

When more than one note is played, the texture could be either polyphonic (two or more independent voices) or homophonic (chords). Make sure that the texture is consistent and does not flit about from one type to the other for no reason.

Here are some examples of different textures.

This Schumann piece entitled “Armes Waisenkind” (“The Poor Orphan”) begins with a homophonic texture. A chord is played on each quaver (eighth note) beat, and the melody is in the soprano/right hand. Generally, two notes are played in each hand, but in bar 1, the G#/B is followed by a single A. Can you think of a reason why?

homophonic texture

The answer is, that since G# is the leading note, it most logically leads to A. If Schumann had continued in 3rds, the harmony would be wrong (A-F would not fit the A minor harmony), and falling to E would spoil the shape of the motif.


This extract from the Rondo movement of Dussek’s 5th Sonatina for piano (Op.20) has a more polyphonic texture. The right and left hands have clear, independent melodies.

 polyphonic texture


This “Old French Song”, transcribed by Tchaikovsky, uses a tonic G pedal in the bass, and the left hand also has a melodic line to help thicken out the texture of the piece. Notice what happens in the notation when the pedal and melodic lines coincide (boxed), the G is written with both an upwards and downwards stem, to indicate that it belongs to both.

 conciding notes


Look for clues about what is expected in terms of texture. For example, if you are given a bar which seems complete, but the stems are apparently pointing in the wrong direction, this is a clue that you need to write a rhythmically different second part on the same stave, with stems up. (If the rhythm is not different, there is no reason to make it into separate parts).

In this example, which bars need another part adding to them?

 second part addition

In the right hand, bars 1-3 all contain notes above the middle line, with stems pointing upwards. This indicates that a rhythmically different lower part, with stems down, should be added. In the left hand, bar 3 needs another part adding above the Cs. Here is a possible rendering:

 second part addition added


Where there are two parts on one stave, the bars should be complete for both parts. If one part ends before the end of the bar, complete it with the necessary rests. Rests can be positioned higher or lower on the stave, to make it clear which part they belong to.

Here, the rests in the centre of the stave complete the first beat of each bar in the right hand. In the second beat, additional quaver (eighth) rests are needed, placed lower down on the stave to show they belong to the lower part.

rests to complete bar



now on amazon topbanner normalamazon logo